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By Philip A. Hastings, Grantly R. Galland

There are greater than 33,000 species of residing fishes, accounting for greater than half the extant vertebrate range in the world. This distinct and accomplished reference showcases the fundamental anatomy and variety of all eighty two orders of fishes and greater than one hundred fifty of the main quite often encountered households, targeting their detailed features.

exact identity of every staff, together with its distinguishing features, is supported with transparent images of preserved specimens, basically from the information of the Marine Vertebrate assortment at Scripps establishment of Oceanography. This diagnostic info is supplemented through radiographs, extra illustrations of really varied lineages, and key references and ecological details for every group.

a great spouse to fundamental ichthyology texts, Fishes: A consultant to Their Diversity supplies a large evaluate of fish morphology prepared in a latest class procedure for college kids, fisheries scientists, marine biologists, vertebrate zoologists, and daily naturalists. This survey of the main speciose crew of vertebrates on the earth will extend the appreciation of and curiosity within the impressive variety of fishes.

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They feed on a number of meals goods together with algae, detritus, bugs, and mollusks. Catostomids are one of many few teams of tetraploid fishes (Ferris and Whitt, 1978). a few species help small artisanal fisheries. numerous species are thought of threatened, such a lot particularly the Razorback Sucker (Catostomus texanus), that is constrained to the Colorado River basin (Minckley and Deacon, 1991). consultant GENERA : CATOSTOMID features: 1) mouth often subterminal 2 ) lips often thick and fleshy with noticeable folds or papillae 3 ) premaxilla and maxilla incorporated within the gape in so much species 4 ) pharyngeal enamel, sixteen or extra, in one row 5 ) anal fin inserted particularly some distance posteriorly, with a bit of elongate rays ILLUSTRATED SPECIMEN: Catostomus commersonii, SIO 61–​4 forty eight, one zero one mm SL 84     Actinopterygii I REFERENCES : Boschung and Mayden, 2004; Ferris and Whitt, 1978; Harris and Mayden, 2001; Minckley and Deacon, 1991; Smith, 1992. CYPRINIFORM variety : A) CYPRINIDAE —​minnows and carps: Barbonymus schwanenfeldii, SIO 72–​282, 108 mm SL B) CYPRINIDAE: Carassius auratus, SIO 64–​2 28, forty seven mm SL C) COBITIDAE —​loaches: Misgurnus anguillicaudatus, SIO 69–​375, eighty five mm SL D) and E) BALITORIDAE —​river loaches: Sewellia elongata, SIO 97–​62, fifty five mm SL (dorsal and ventral perspectives) CHARACIFORMES—​Characins variety: 18 households, 270 genera, over 1,700 species Astyanax, Cynodon, Gasteropelecus, Hydrocynus, Serrasalmus DISTRIBUTION : Southern North the USA, relevant the US, South the USA, and Africa HABITAT: Freshwater; tropical to temperate; pelagic to benthic, frequently over delicate bottoms comments : The Characiformes is a very assorted lineage of freshwater fishes. Its monophyly is easily confirmed morphologically, and there's help from a few molecular reports (e. g. , Lavoue et al. , 2005; Li et al. , 2008; Olivera et al. , 2011), although others don't help the monophyly of this team (e. g, Ortí and Meyer, 1997; Nakatani et al. , 2011; Peng et al. , 2006). even supposing individuals happen in Africa, lots of the households and species during this lineage are present in the hot global. the most important kin, the Characidae, has good over 1,140 species. a few species are air-breathers, so much are carnivores (some are fruit-eaters), consultant GENERA : Characiformes    85 CHARACIFORM features: 1) adipose fin found in such a lot species 2 ) jaw the teeth multicuspid, commonly good built 3 ) higher jaw frequently nonprotrusible 4 ) physique scaled 5 ) 3 to 5 branchiostegal rays 6 ) pelvic-fin rays 5 to seven 7 ) central caudal-fin rays frequently 19 ILLUSTRATED SPECIMENS: A) Astyanax mexicanus, SIO 53–​33, fifty seven mm SL (Characidae—​characins) B) Astyanax mexicanus (blind form), SIO 64–​2 28, sixty two mm SL (Characidae) C) Pygocentrus nattereri, SIO 64–​2 28, 240 mm SL (Serrasalmidae—piranhas and pacus) D) Stethaprion crenatum, SIO 70–​280, fifty four mm SL (Characidae) E) Psectrogaster rutiloides, SIO 03–​135, 87 mm SL (Curimatidae—​toothless characins) F) Hoplias microlepis, SIO 82–​92, 323 mm SL (Erythrinidae—​trahiras) G) Bivibranchia fowleri, SIO 03–​133, 123 mm SL (Hemiodontidae—​halftooths) H) Acestrorhynchus falcirostris, SIO 03–​136, 172 mm SL (Acestrorhynchidae—​smallscale pike characins) and a few it seems that have inner fertilization.

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